- Discovery: A Penetrator performs information discovery via a wide range of techniques—that is, whois databases, scan utilities, Google data, and more—in order to gain as much information about the target system as possible. These discoveries often reveal sensitive information that can be used to perform specific attacks on a given machine.
- Enumeration: Once the specific networks and systems are identified through discovery, it is important to gain as much information possible about each system. The difference between enumeration and discovery depends on the state of intrusion. Enumeration is all about actively trying to obtain usernames as well as software and hardware device version information.
- Vulnerability Identification: The vulnerability identification step is a very important phase in penetration testing. This allows the user to determine the weaknesses of the target system and where to launch the attacks.
- Exploitation and Launching of Attacks: After the vulnerabilities are identified on the target system, it is then possible to launch the right exploits. The goal of launching exploits is to gain full access of the target system.
- Denial of Service: A DOS (Denial of Service) test can be performed to test the stability of production systems in order to show if they can be crashed or not. When performing a penetration test of a preproduction system, it is important to test its stability and how easily can it be crashed. By doing this, its stability will be ensured once it is deployed into a real environment.
- Reporting: After the completion of the penetration test, it is important to get user-customized reporting suites for a technical and/or management overview. This includes the executive summary, detailed recommendations to solve the identified vulnerabilities, and official security ID numbers for the vulnerabilities. The reports come in different formats such as html, pdf, and xml. Furthermore, all the reports are open to be modified as of the user’s choice.
Nmap is a very versatile tool developed to scan addresses (IPV6 included), this tool allows the users to gather a mass amount of information about the target quickly, information including open ports, + much, much more.
Nmap supports a large number of scanning techniques such as: UDP, TCP connect(), TCP SYN (half open), ftp proxy (bounce attack), ICMP (ping sweep), FIN, ACK sweep, Xmas Tree, SYN sweep, IP Protocol, and Null scan.
Wire shark provides the ability to view data from a live network, and supports hundreds of protocols and media formats.
Burp Suite is an integrated platform for performing security testing of web applications. Its various tools work seamlessly together to support the entire testing process, from initial mapping and analysis of an application’s attack surface, through to finding and exploiting security vulnerabilities. (Taken from http://portswigger.net/burp/)